Electricité-Traduction-Francais-Anglais

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Retour à la Catégorie: Lexique Sciences Physiques
  • Alimentation - Générateurs: electric power supply- Generators (Source of electrical energy. )
  • Alternateur: Alternator (Device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.)
  • Ampère (A): Ampere or amp (A) (The SI unit of current. 1 A = 1 C/s.)
  • Ampèremètre: Ammeter (An instrument that measures the strength of an electric current, in amperes)
  • Ampèremètre: Ammeter (An instrument that measures electrical current in amperes,)
  • Ampoule en verre: glass bulb (An incandescent lamp or its glass housing)
  • Appareils ménagers: Household appliances (Machines made for a particular purpose)
  • Approvisionner: To supply (To make available for use; provide)
  • Armatures du condensateur: Plates of the capacitor (Simple capacitors consist of two plates made of an electrically conducting material)
  • Batterie: Battery (a combination of two or more cells electrically connected to work together to produce electric energy.)
  • Bobine: Coil (A number of turns of current-carrying wire, produced by wrapping the wire around a shaped piece of material (a former).)
  • Bobine plate: Flat coil (A coil of wires whose length is small in comparison with its diameter.)
  • Calibrer, étalonner: To calibrate (To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard)
  • Capacité d'un condensateur: Capacitance of a capacitor (Capacitance (symbol C) is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge)
  • Caractéristique d'un dipôle: Characteristic of a dipole (The current I which flows through the component is plotted along the x-axis, and the potential difference between the terminals of the component along the y-axis.)
  • Carburant/ combustible: fuel (A substance that produces useful energy when it undergoes a chemical or nuclear reaction)
  • Carburants fossile: fossil fuels (Hydrocarbon deposits derived from living matter of a previous geological time and used as fuel)
  • Centrale électrique: Power station (An electrical generating station. Produces electricity for domestic and industrial use thanks to large generators.)
  • Centrale hydraulique: Hydro-electric power station (The place where electricity is produced by falling water driving a turbine)
  • Centrale thermique: Thermal power station (A power station that is operated by burning coal, oil or gas)
  • Champ électrique E: Electric field E (A region of space characterized by the existence of a force F generated by electric charge q)
  • Charbon: Coal (Fossil fuel consisting of carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period)
  • Charge électrique q: Electric charge q (The symbol q is often used to denote a quantity of electricity or charge)
  • Circuit: Circuit (A conductive loop along which electricity passes)
  • Circuit fermé: Closed circuit (loop) (a complete electrical circuit around which current flows or a signal circulates)
  • Circuit ouvert: Open(broken) circuit. (An electrical circuit that has a break preventing current from flowing through.)
  • Compagnie de l'éléctricité: Electrical power utility (Electric utilities are tied together by transmission lines into large systems called power grids)
  • Composant électrique: Electrical component (element) (A device that uses or produces electricity and is used in electrical circuits.)
  • Compteur électrique: Electricity meter (An electricity meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electrical energy supplied to or produced by a residence, business or machine)
  • Condensateur: Capacitor (A device that stores charge: It often consists of two conductors separated by an insulator or dielectric.)
  • Condensateurs branchés en dérivation: Capacitors in parallel (When capacitors are connected in parallel we can add their capacitances.)
  • Condensateurs branchés en série: Capacitors in series (When capacitors are connected in series we can add the inverse of their capacitances.)
  • Conducteur ohmique: Resistor (An electrical component designed to introduce a known value of resistance into a circuit.)
  • Conductor: Conductor (A material containing a large number of charges (electrons) which are free to move: it can therefore conduct electricity. For example: aluminium, copper, gold.)
  • Connecter des fils: To connect wires (To join, link, or fasten together)
  • Conservation de la charge: Conservation of charge (A principle stating that the total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system.)
  • Coulomb C: Coulomb C (The SI unit of electric charge.)
  • Coupure de courant: Power failure (cut) (Equipment failure resulting when the supply of power fails)
  • Courant alternatif i: Alternating current i (AC) (An electric current that repeatedly changes its direction or strength, usually at a certain frequency or range of frequencies,)
  • Courant continu I: Direct current I (DC) (Electrical current which flows in one direction only, and doesn't depend on time.)
  • Courant dérivé: Shunt current (A low-resistance connection between two points in an electric circuit that forms an alternative path for a portion of the current)
  • Court-circuit: short circuit (A component is short-circuited when its two terminals are connected by a wire.)
  • Court-circuiter: To short circuit (A low-resistance connection established by accident or intention between two points in an electric circuit)
  • Décrire une chaîne énergétique: To describe an energy chain (Translation)
  • DEL (diode electroluminescente): LED (Light Emitting Diode) (A diode with a higher resistance than normal, in which light is produced instead of heat.)
  • Dérivation (en parallèle): Shunt (A conductor having low resistance in parallel with another device to divert a fraction of the current)
  • Développement durable: Sustainable development (Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.)
  • Différence de potentiel ou tension (entre 2 points) UAB = VB - VA: Potential difference (p.d) or voltage (between two points) (The potential difference between two points A and B is the work done against electrical forces in carrying a unit positive charge from A to B. As the work, it's a scalar quantity which can be positive or negative)
  • Diode: Diode (Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow.The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block it in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition).)
  • Disjoncteur: Circuit breaker (Safety device in domestic electric installations which stops the circuit if the current is too large.)
  • Energie stockée dans un condensateur: Energy stored in a capacitor (Energy stored in a capacitor is reversibly reconvertible into some other form, The energy (measured in joules) stored in a capacitor is equal to the work done to charge it)
  • Energies renouvelables: Renewable energies (energy generated from natural resources--such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat--which are renewable)
  • Enroulement de fils/ bobine: Coil ( a coil is formed when a conductor (usually an insulated solid copper wire) is wound around a core or form to create an inductor or electromagnet)
  • Eolienne: Windmill (A turbine that is powered by the wind)
  • Etalonnage: Calibration (the act of checking or adjusting (by comparison with a standard) the accuracy of a measuring instrument)
  • Etre branché à du 220 V: To be connected across 220 V. ()
  • Exploiter l'énergie: To harness energy (Energy brought under control and put to use)
  • Faisceau d'électrons: A beam of electrons (A narrow stream of electrons moving in the same direction, all having about the same velocity)
  • Farads (F): Farad (F) (The SI unit of capacitance)
  • Fil de connection (en cuivre): Connection (copper) wire (Copper wire used to join, link, or fasten together)
  • Filament: Filament (A fine wire that gives off radiation when an electric current is passed through it, usually to provide light, as in an incandescent bulb, or to provide heat, as in a vacuum tube)
  • Fournir de l'énergie: To provide energy, to power (To provide energy so that work is done)
  • Fréquence: Frequency (The number of oscillations which occur in one second.)
  • Fusible: Fuse (Electric device which melts in order to break the circuit if the current through it becomes too large)
  • Galvanomètre: Galvanometer (An instrument used to detect, measure, and determine the direction of small electric currents by means of mechanical effects produced by a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field)
  • Herz (Hz): Herz(Hz) (The SI unit of frequency. 1 Hz = 1 s-1.)
  • Interrupteur: Switch (A device, normally mechanical, which is used to close or open (break) a circuit.)
  • Isolant: Insulator (A material with very few or no charges (electrons) free to move.)
  • Joule (J): Joule (J) (The SI unit of energy.)
  • La charge élémentaire e: The quantum of charge e (The magnitude of the smallest charge ever measured is denoted by e (the quantum of charge))
  • La charge est quantifiée: Charge is quantized (All free charges are integer multiples of e)
  • La circulation des charges: The flow of charges (If two charged bodies of different potential are connected using a conductor, a flow of charges takes place. Charges will flow as long as there is potential difference between the two bodies. This rate of flow of electric charge is called 'electric current')
  • La force électromotrice (fem): The electromotive force (emf) (A source of energy that can cause a current to flow in an electrical circuit or device)
  • La lampe éclaire: The lamp lights up (The device that produces illumination will give off light.)
  • La loi de Coulomb: Coulomb's law ("The fundamental law of electrostatics stating that the force between two charged particles is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

")

  • La loi d'Ohm: Ohm's law (The law stating that the direct current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference between its ends. It is usually formulated as V = IR, where V is the potential difference, or voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance of the conductor)
  • La neutre: Neutral (A grounded current carrying wire in an electrical system)
  • La phase: Live (The live wire in an AC electrical circuit refers to the wire (in a single-phase system) which carries an oscillating voltage with respect to the earth)
  • La puissance dissipée par effet Joule dans une résistance: The power loss in a resistor by Joule effect (The Joule effect is a thermal effect and the dissipated power is given by the formula : P=UI=RI2=U2/R)
  • La puissance électrique: Electrical power (P) (The power delivered by an energy source as it carries a charge q through a potential rise U in a period of time Dt is: P = W/Dt = qxU/Dt=UI)
  • La résistance R du conducteur ohmique: The resistance R of the resistor (It represents the ability of an object to resist the flow of current. The resistance R is given by Ohm's Law: R=U/I)
  • La terre: Earth wire (A wire which is connected to the earth terminal in an electrical device.)
  • Lampe: Lamp (A device that produces light)
  • L'ampèremètre affiche une intensité de 0,5 ampère (par exemple).: The ammeter shows an intensity of 0.5 amps. (An ammeter is an instrument that measures electric current in amperes, for example, 0.5 amps)
  • L'ampèremètre doit être branché en série: An ammeter must be connected in series ("The ammeter is connected in the circuit in series because it

has low resistance and the voltage is connected in parallel because it has high resistance")

  • Le multimètre: Multimeter (An instrument designed to measure electrical quantities. A typical multimeter can measure alternating- and direct-current potential differences (voltages), current, and resistance, with several full-scale ranges provided for each quantity.)
  • Le courant circule: The current flows (The current flows in a circuit which is a closed loop, consisting of a source of potential difference and one or more components.)
  • Le courant circule dans le récepteur: The current flows through the receiver ()
  • Le courant délivré par le générateur: The current drawn by the power supply (Electrical current is a measure of the amount of electrical charge transferred per unit time. It represents the flow of electrons through a conductive material from the power source)
  • Le courant du secteur: Mains electricity (Electricity supplied to our homes from the National Grid)
  • Le voltmètre doit être branché en dérivation: The voltmeter must be connected in parallel (across the terminals of the component) ()
  • L'effet Joule: the Joule effect (When current flows through a component which has a resistance, the component heats up.)
  • L'énergie électrique: Electrical work (W) (The work required to transfer a charge q through a potential difference U is given by: W (in J) = q (in C) x U (in V))
  • Les bornes d'un dipôle: the terminals (or the ends) of a component ()
  • Les circuits sont construits de manière à connecter chaque appareil ménager en parallèle.: House circuits are so constructed that each device is connected in parallel with the others ()
  • Ligne de transmission de haute tension: Transmission lines (cables) (Process of transferring electric energy from one point to another in an electrical power system)
  • L'intensité I du courant électrique: Intensity I (amperage) of the electric current (If a charge q is transported through a given cross section of the wire in a period of time Dt: I = q/Dt. It's the rate of flow of electric charge.)
  • Loi des mailles (seconde loi de Kirchhoff): Kirchhoff's loop (or circuit) rule (Kirchhoff's second law) (The algebraic sum of the voltages in a loop (closed circuit) is equal to zero. )
  • Loi des nœuds (première loi de Kirchhoff): Kirchhoff's node (or junction) rule (Kirchhoff's first law) (The sum of all the current coming into a node must equal the sum of all the current leaving that node.)
  • Maille: Loop (A closed circuit.)
  • Mesurer la tension à ses bornes: To measure the potential difference between its terminals. ()
  • Montage: Circuitry (Unbroken path along which an electric current exists or is intended or able to flow)
  • Moteur: Motor (A machine that converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy and so imparts motion)
  • Multimètre: Multimeter (A galvanometer combined with the shunts and multipliers necessary to measure current I and potential differences.)
  • Nœud: Node (or junction) (A point where three or more current-carrying wires or branches meet.)
  • Ohm (W): Ohm (W) (The SI unit for resistance, symbol W (Greek omega).)
  • Ohmmètre: Ohmmeter (Device used to measure the resistance of a resistor.)
  • Oscilloscope: Oscilloscope (Instrument with a fluorescent screen used to visualize the tension between the terminals of a component versus time.)
  • Panneaux solaires: Solar panels (An electrical device consisting of a large array of connected solar cells)
  • Pertes d'énergie par effet Joule: Power losses by Joule effect (Resistance in a circuit converts electric energy into heat energy. The amount of heat per second that develops in a wire carrying a current is proportional to the electrical resistance of the wire and the square of the current. The heat evolved per second is equivalent to the electrical power absorbed, or the power loss.)
  • Pétrole: Crude oil (The common name for the alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2)
  • Photopile: Solar cell (Device which directly converts light into electric current. )
  • Pile: Cell (Two plates of different metals separated by a electrolyte)
  • Point de fonctionnement: Operating point (This point corresponds to particular values of U and I in a circuit when the current flows.)
  • Potentiel absolu (en un point A): VA: Absolute potential (at a point A): VA (The absolute potential in a point A is the work done against electrical forces in carrying a unit positive charge from infinity to A. )
  • Protégé contre les courts-circuits: Short-circuit-proof ()
  • Réglage fin: Accurate adjustment (The act of checking or adjusting (by comparison with a standard) the accuracy of a measuring instrument)
  • Réglage grossier: Coarse adjustment (Adjustment without great accuracy)
  • Réseau de distribution d'électricité: Distribution network of electricity (A system of cables which deliver electric power from its point of generation to the end users)
  • Résistance équivalente: Equivalent resistance (The equivalent resistance is called Req.)
  • Résistances en dérivation: Resistors in parallel (The formula is given as : 1/Req=1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 The equivalent resistance in parallel is always less than the smallest of the individual resistances. )
  • Résistances en séries: Resistors in series (The formula is given as : Req=R1+R2+R3+…in a series combination (it is assumed that all connection wires are effectively resistanceless). The equivalent resistance in parallel is always greater than the largest of the individual resistances. )
  • Sens du courant I: Direction of the current I (By custom, the direction of the current I is taken to be in the direction of flow of positive charge, the opposite direction of the flow of electrons. The direction of the current I outside the generator, in the circuit, is from high potential (positive terminal +) to low potential (negative terminal -). The direction of the flow of electrons is contrary to the above.)
  • Sensibilité: Deflection sensitivity (The displacement of the electron beam at the target or screen of a cathode-ray tube per unit of change in the deflection field)
  • Solénoïde: Solenoid (A coil whose length is large in comparison to its diameter.)
  • Stockage de l'énergie: Energy storage (The general method and specific techniques for storing energy derived from some primary source in a form convenient for use at a later time.)
  • Tension alternative sinusoïdale: Alternating sinusoidal tension ()
  • Transformateur: Transformers (They increase or decrease potential differences. )
  • Un canon à électron dans un téléviseur: An electron gun in a TV set (The part of an electron tube, esp. a cathode-ray tube, that emits, accelerates, and controls a beam of electrons)
  • Un circuit en dérivation: A circuit in parallel (A closed electrical circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit.)
  • Un circuit série: A series circuit (An electric circuit connected so that current passes through each circuit element in turn without branching.)
  • Un conducteur ohmique à résistance variable: A variable resistor (A device whose resistance can be changed mechanically.)
  • Un potentiomètre: A potentiometer (1, A mechanical variable resistor, or 2, an instrument for measuring an unknown voltage by comparison with a known voltage, such as that of a generator.)
  • Un rheostat: A rheostat (A continuously variable electrical resistor used to regulate current.)
  • Usine: Factory (A building or group of buildings with facilities for the manufacture of goods)
  • Valeur efficace: Root-mean-square (rms) value (This is the most common mathematical method of defining the effective voltage or current of an AC wave.)
  • Valeur moyenne: Mean value (An average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n)
  • Valeur nominale: Nominal value (The value of some property (such as resistance, capacitance, or impedance) of a device at which it is supposed to operate, under normal conditions, as opposed to actual value)
  • Volt: Volt (The SI unit of potential difference U (from the Italian physician Volta) 1 V = 1 J/C)
  • Voltmètre: Voltmeter (Device used to measure the potential difference U (it has a high-resistance))
  • Voltmètre: Voltmeter (An instrument for measuring potential differences in volts)
  • Watt (W): Watt (W) (The SI unit of power.)
  • 2 charges électriques de même signe se repoussent: 2 charges which have the same sign repel each other (two electric charges having the same sign repel one another)
  • 2 charges électriques de signe opposé s'attirent: 2 charges which have opposite signs attract each other (two electric charges having opposite signs attract one another)


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